Saturday, December 10, 2011
Two most fatal technical errors in current climate research that have led to the false illusion of global warming are comprehensively briefed as follows:
1) False assumption of a black-body earth surface
Thermal radiation energy per unit time and unit area the Earth emits into space is written as ε σT4 , where T is the mean temperature of the earth surface, and σ the Stefan-Boltzmann constant equal to 5.67 x 10-8 (W/m2K4).
The symbol ε denotes emissivity which has a value between 0 and 1; 0 is for white and transparent bodies, and 1 for black bodies. Most substances are grey bodies with 0 < ε < 1. In current climate research, ε is either missing or asserted to be a unit, implying a black-body earth surface. Truly this is illogically wrong.
2) Omission of the thermal emission property of CO2
We all know that CO2 absorbs significant amount of earth’s outgoing radiation. However, this is only half of the story for CO2. According to the Kirchhoff’s law of 19th century physics, an object that absorbs emits. As a result of emission of thermal radiation, CO2 is cooler than, gains heat by molecular collision from, and dissipates heat by radiation for nitrogen and oxygen. It is N2 and O2 that award the Earth a warm liveable atmosphere.
The kingdoms of plantae and animalia, must share the earth atmosphere. CO2 is never a pollutant, but a necessity for life. Increased level of CO2 concentration is ecologically beneficial, with improved agriculture yields and a greener earth surface coverage due to enhanced efficiency for photosynthesis. (by Dr. J. Cao, Australia)
Saturday, December 3, 2011
The second law of thermodynamics states the entropy of an isolated system increases always with time towards its maximum. William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), one of the most brilliant minds in the field of thermodynamics in the 19th century, applied the law to the case of the universe and formulised a hypothesis that says: when the maximum entropy is reached the universe will have no thermodynamic free energy any more to sustain motion or life – ultimate fate of the universe is heat death. The theory has been further developed since, and cosmological research suggests eventually all matters will decay into iron, and collapse into black holes in some remote future of 10’s 3 digits power (>10^100) years from now. Presumably this is the scariest projection our human minds are capable to image.
A century after Lord Kelvin, another scary projection is formulised by climate scientists. Instrumental observations have found that atmospheric carbon dioxide absorbs significant amount of earth outgoing radiation. It is then believed that atmospheric carbon dioxide traps heat and warms up the atmosphere. With the concentration of CO2 increasing more and more, the Earth will get warmer and warmer, ice melts, sea level rises, leading to catastrophic climate change that will destroy the living environment of the mother Earth. "Earth 2100," as an ABC television program forecasts, is the "Final Century of Civilization."
Unlike the theory of heat death of the universe that is only studied by academics, the theory of global warming has alarmed and mobilised our mankind. We’ve spent trillions of dollars trying to combat global warming. From the Kyoto Protocol to the Copenhagen Climate Summit COP15 to the current
conference COP17, world leaders have shown how they are convinced that carbon dioxide is causing global warming. Australian parliament even passed recently a carbon tax law upon its citizens. Durban
While the theory of heat death of the universe remains a valid scientific hypothesis, the theory of global warming, fortunately and unfortunately, has been found to be a false illusion due to technical errors. Physical analysis of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen molecules shows carbon dioxide is cooler than, gains heat by molecular collision from, and dissipates heat by radiation for nitrogen and oxygen gases.
CO2 is a cooling agent for the atmosphere; nitrogen and oxygen gases secure the Earth a warm liveable near surface atmosphere. In the thermosphere where CO2 is sorted out due to heavier molecular weight, the temperature of residual air is well above 100°C, goes higher and higher with altitude reaching a value exceed 1000°C.
Wednesday, November 23, 2011
The false assumption that the earth surface is a black body surface has been identified being a fatal technical error leading to false illusion of global warming.
The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that a black-body object with surface temperature, T, emits energy σT4 per unit time and unit surface area, where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant equal to 5.670373 x 10-8 (W/m2K4). For an object with any surface, it emits ε σT4, where ε is surface emissivity of the object. ε is a value between 0 and 1; 0 is literally for white and transparent bodies, and 1 for black bodies. Most substances are grey bodies with 0 < ε < 1.
When the Stefan-Boltzmann law is applied to calculate the Earth’s outgoing emission flux, Qe, one shall write:Qe = 4pr2 ε σT4
where, r, is radius of the Earth, and T is the Earth’s mean surface temperature; 4pr2 constitutes of the surface area of the Earth.
In current climate research, ε is either missing in the expression or asserted to be unit. By taking ε = 1, one has assumed the earth surface a black-body surface, which means that almost everything on the earth surface ¾ ocean, soil, snow and vegetations etc are all objects with black-body surface! Truly this is illogically wrong.
For a given outgoing flux, Qe, the calculated mean earth surface temperature T for ε = 1.0 becomes lower than that for ε < 1.0.
This technical error has led to a widely spreading misunderstanding that the Earth would be much colder should there is no greenhouse gas effect. With ε = 1.0, one obtains T = -18°C, which is then compared with actual mean near surface air temperature 15°C. The difference 33°C has been considered a common measure of the greenhouse effect [e.g. Lucis et al. “Atmospheric CO2: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth’s Temperature” Science 33, 356-359 (2010)].
Numerous documents have made similar statements without realising the value of -18°C is incorrect. The Joint Science Academies’ Statement: Global Response to Climate Change (2005) by academies of
Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK and stated: USA
“The existence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is vital to life on Earth – in their absence average temperatures would be about 30 centigrade degrees lower than they are today.”
CSIRO’s Science and Solutions for
– Climate Change (2010) writes: Australia
“The surface of the planet would be more than 30°C cooler than it is now without this natural greenhouse effect, and life as we know it would not be possible.”
After quoting the Science paper, the Australian Climate Commission Report – The Critical Decade (2011) continues:
“In fact, without these long-lived greenhouse gases, the Earth’s temperature would drop rapidly and drive the planet into an ice-bound state.”
It is a collective error in current climate research. One can find the error in peer reviewed academic publications as well as in climate science textbooks. It may prove to be the most expensive technical error we ever had in the human history. (By Dr. J. Cao,
Sunday, November 20, 2011
There is a fallacy dominating the way of our thinking in current climate research that radiative gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapour are regarded greenhouse gases that trap heat and warm up the atmosphere. Physics analysis of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen molecules, however, tells a different story: carbon dioxide is cooler than, gains heat by molecular collision from, and dissipates heat by radiation for nitrogen and oxygen. Indeed, CO2 is a coolant of the atmosphere, and it is nitrogen and oxygen gases that award the Earth a warm liveable near surface atmosphere.
The physical principle behind the analysis lies in the Kirchhoff’s law of 19th century radiation physics, which can be restated in plain English as: an object that absorbs emits and an object that emits absorbs. Absorption and emission are two inseparable equivalent identities of the same physical essence. Carbon dioxide absorbs infrared therefore it emits as well thermal radiation. Nitrogen and oxygen do not absorb, therefore do not emit. CO2 approaches 0 K because of its emission if there is no radiation source; absorption of the thermal radiation from the earth ground surface rises CO2 temperature from -273.15°C to -78°C only. CO2 gains heat by colliding with warmer nitrogen and oxygen to rise its temperature further, which can be measured by spectroscopy.
We will have a better understanding of the physical principle if one notices that a computer case is often designed black. This is because a black surface emits more heat out so the computer will be cooler. On the other hand, an industrial boiler is usually painted silver to reduce thermal emission to reserve heat.
With this alternative interpretation, we have a better explanation of the temperature-altitude profile of the atmosphere; in particular, a better explanation of the existence of the thermosphere where the molecular temperature of residual oxygen gas is well above 100°C ¾ CO2 gas is sorted out in the thermosphere due to its heavier molecular weight.
A PDF file of the full manuscript entitled “Role of heat reservation of N2 and O2 and the role of heat dissipation of CO2 and water vapour” is available to download if interested.
(By Dr. J. Cao, Australia)
(By Dr. J. Cao, Australia)